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Beautiful piece of jewerly from category of diamond and name of Sterling Silver Green Mystic Topaz Gemstone Women's Ring (1.62 cttw, 8X6MM Oval , Available in size ... This outstanding article has rare style and the cost is (29.99, 'USD') which is proportional to its quality.
The ladies ring is a jewelry which is beautifying fingers of woman from different social background.This adorable ring category of Diamond will fit you great in the independence of the situations such as night outs, business dinners and going out with dear.This perfect ring Diamond are superbly designed, and will fit perfectly with the other rings on your hand. May his brilliance shines. Enjoy in this piece of art at any time and show it on every step. Brand that produces the item is Gem Stone King. The material from which is made is 925 Sterling Sterling Silver Mystic Topaz, Zirconia Beautiful color of ring is Green and White. The quality of the item are: A Timeless Treasure and Style Classic, our rings are always fit for any occasion. Beautifully crafted and designed our Mystic Topaz and Zirconia ring is sure to win your way into her heart. This ring crafted in 925 Sterling Silver finish that adds a polished look to any ensemble and outfit. This ring is the perfect ring for engagements, weddings and all other occasions. As always with all of our products this item comes in packaging making it ready for gifting as soon as it is received.This beautiful item is brand new and comes with complimentary gift packaging appropriately selected to match the item you purchased. The packaging ranges from dainty foam insert packaging to luxurious leather insert cherry wood boxes. Every order is fully insured regardless of value. This insurance protects you against damage or the loss of your item while in transit. The Shipping and Handling fees include the insurance so there is no need to pay separately for insurance.. Good price for you, do not miss it ! Click on button Click To Order and buy this article..
Article Sterling Silver Green Mystic Topaz Gemstone Women's Ring (1.62 cttw, 8X6MM Oval , Available in size .. has a rating of 4.5 based on 86 customer marks
In mineralogy, black diamond ring is meta stable allot rope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of cubic face centered crystal structure called a black diamond engagement ring lattice. Black diamond ring is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from black diamond engagement ring to graphite is negligible at standard conditions. Black diamond engagement ring is known as a material with superlative physical qualities, most of which originate from the strong covalent bond between its atoms. In particular, black diamond engagement ring has the highest hardnes and the thermal conductivity of bulk materials. These properties determine the major industrial application of black diamond engagement ring in cutting and polishing tools and the scientific applications in black diamond ring knives and black diamond ring anvil cells. Due to the extremely rigid grid can be contaminated with very few kin of impurities such as boron and nitrogen. Small amounts of defects or impurities (about one per million of lattice atoms) color black diamond ring blue (boron), yellow (nitrogen), brown (lattice defects), green (radiation exposure), purple, pink, orange or red. Black diamond ring also has relatively high optical dispersion (ability to disperse light of different colors). Most natural black diamond rings are formed at high temperature and pressure at a depth of 140-190 kilometers (87-118 mi) in the Earth's mantle. Minerals containing carbon to provide a carbon source and growth over the period of 1 to 3.3 billion years (25% to 75% depending on the age of the Earth). Black diamond engagement rings come close to the Earth surface through deep volcanic eruptions with the magma, which cools into igneous rocks known as timberlines and lamproites. Black diamond rings can also be produced synthetically in a HPHT method which approximately simulates the conditions of the Earth's mantle. An alternative, and completely different growth technique is chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several non- black diamond ring materials, which include cubic zirconia and silicon carbide and are often called black diamond ring stimulants, resemble black diamond rings in appearance and many properties. Special gemological techniques have been developed to distinguish natural, synthetic black diamond rings and black diamond engagement ring stimulants. History The name black diamond ring is derived from the ancient Greek (Adamas), “correct”, “stable”, “unbreakable”, “untamed” from - (a-), “un-” + (dam), I Overcome, I tame . Black diamond engagement rings are thought to have been first recognized and mined in India, which could be substantial debris from the stone, they found many centuries ago along the rivers Penner, Krishna and Godavari. Black diamond ring have been known in India for at least 3,000 years but most likely 6,000 years. Black diamond engagement rings have been treasured as gemstones since their use as religious icons in ancient India. Their usage in engraving tools also dates back to the early history of mankind. Popularity of black diamond rings has risen since the 19th century because of increased supply, improved cutting and polishing techniques, growth in the world economy, and innovative and successful advertising campaigns. In 1772, Antoine Lavoisier used a lens to concentrate the rays of the sun on a black diamond engagement ring in an atmosphere of oxygen, and showed that the only product of combustion carbon dioxide, proving that black diamond ring is composed of carbon. Later in 1797, Smithson Tennant repeated and expanded that experiment. Thus, to prove that burning black diamond engagement ring and graphite releases the same amount of gas he established the chemical equivalence of these substances. The best known use of black diamond engagement rings today is as gemstones used for adornment, the use of which dates back to antiquity. The dispersion of white light into spectral colors is the primary gemological characteristic of gem black diamond rings. In the 20th century, experts in gemology have developed method of grading black diamond engagement rings and other gemstones based on the characteristics most important to their value as a gem. Four characteristics, known informally as the four Cs, are now commonly used as the basic descriptors of black diamond engagement rings: these are carat (its weight), cut (quality cut is classified portions, symmetry and polish), color (how close to white or colorless; For fancy black diamond ring, how intense its hue) and clarity (how free from inclusions). A large, flawless black diamond ring is known as a model. Science The formation of natural black diamond ring requires very specific conditions in the exposure of the carbon bearing materials with a high pressure ranging between approximately 45 and 60 kilo bars (4,5 and 6 GPA), but at a relatively low temperature range of between about 900 and 1300 C (1650 and 2370 F). These conditions are fulfilled in two places on Earth; in the lithospheric mantle below relatively stable continental plates, and at the site of a meteorite strike. Formation in cratons The conditions for black diamond ring formation to happen in the lithospheric mantle occur at considerable depth corresponding to the requirements of temperature and pressure. This depth is estimated between 140 and 190 miles (87 and 118 mi), though occasionally black diamond rings crystallize at a depth of about 300 km (190 mi). The rate at which temperature changes with increasing depth in the Earth varies greatly in different parts of the Earth. In particular, in accordance with the transoceanic rings temperature rapidly increases with depth, outside the range required for the formation of black diamond engagement rings in the depth required. The correct combination of temperature and pressure is only found in the thick, ancient, and stable parts of continental plates where there are regions of lithosphere known as cratons. Long residence in the cratonic lithosphere allows black diamond ring crystals to grow larger. Through studies of carbon isotope ratios (similar to the method of carbon dating, except with the stable isotopes, C-12 and C-13), it has been shown that the carbon found in the black diamond ring come from both organic and inorganic sources. Some black diamond engagement rings, known as harzburgitic are formed from inorganic carbon originally found deep in the Earth's mantle. In contrast, eulogistic black diamond engagement rings contain organic carbon in the organic layers, which is pushed down from the surface of the Earth's crust through subduction before transforming into a black diamond ring. These two different source of carbon have measurably different 13C: the relationship 12C. Black diamond engagement rings, who came to the Earth's surface are generally quite old, from under 1 billion to 3.3 billion years old. This is a 22% to 73% depending on the age of the Earth. Black diamond rings occur most often as euhedral or rounded octahedra and twinned octahedra known macles. Since black diamond ring has a crystal structure of a cubic arrangement of atoms, have many aspects which fall within the cube, octahedron, rhombicosidodecahedron, tetras- hexagon or diyakis dodecahedron. Crystals can be rounded and indistinct edges and can be elongated. It is sometimes found grown together, or in the form of a double “double” of the crystals on the surface of the octahedron. These different shapes and habits of some black diamond rings result from the different external circumstances. Black diamond engagement rings (especially those with rounded crystal faces) are commonly found coated in nyf, opaque, gums, such as skin. Space black diamond interstellar meteorites, it was found to contain carbon can be in the form of black diamond ring (Lewis et al., 1987). Not all black diamond rings on Earth originated here. Type appoint black diamond ring carbon ado that is found in South America and Africa may have been deposited there via an asteroid impact (not due to impact) from about 3 billion years. These black diamond engagement rings may have formed in interstellar environment, but since 2008, there was no scientific consensus on how carbon ado black diamond rings originated. Black diamond rings can also form under other naturally occurring high-pressure conditions. Very small black diamond ring of micrometer and manometer sizes, known as micro black diamond engagement rings or nano black diamond engagement rings respectively, have been found in meteorite impact events. Thats effect create shock zones of high pressure and temperature suitable for black diamond ring formation. Micro black diamond ring Effect type can be used as an indicator of ancient impact craters. Popigai crater in Russia, perhaps the greatest global black diamond ring deposit, which is estimated at trillions of carats, and formed by an asteroid impact. Scientific evidence indicates that white dwarf stars have a core of crystallized carbon and oxygen nuclei. The largest of these found in the universe so far, BPM 37093, is located 50 light-years (4.7 1014 km) in the constellation Centaurus. Pres release from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics described the 2,500-mile (4,000 km) -Wide stellar core as a black diamond engagement ring. That it was as Lucy when the song The Beatles' “Lucy in the Sky with black diamond rings”. Transport from depletion black diamond ring-bearing rock is carried out from the mantle to the Earth's surface by deep-origin volcanic eruptions. The magma for such a volcano must originate at a depth where black diamond engagement rings can be formed-150 km (93 miles) or more (three times or more the depth of source magma for most volcanoes). It is relatively rare. These typically small surface volcanic craters extend downward in formations known as volcanic pipes. The pipes contain material that was transported toward the surface by volcanic action, but was not ejected before the volcanic activity ceased. During an outbreak of this tube is open to the surface, resulting in an open circulation; many monoliths of surface rock and even wood and fossils are located in volcanic pipes. Black diamond ring-bear volcanic pipes are closely related to the oldest, coolest regions of continental crust. This is because cratons are very thick, and their lithospheric mantle exten to great enough depth that black diamond rings are stable. Not all pipes contain black diamond ring, and even fewer contain enough black diamond ring to make mining economically viable. Black diamond engagement rings are very rare, because most of the crust is too thin to permit black diamond ringd crystallization, whereas the majority coat relatively little carbon. The magma in volcanic pipes is usually one of two characteristic types, which cool into igneous rock known as either timberline or lamproite. The magma itself does not contain black diamond engagement ring; instead, it acts as a lift which carries the deep-formed rocks (monoliths), minerals and the liquid upward. These rocks are typically rich in z-direction magnesium olivine, pyroxene and amphibole minerals which are often altered to serpentine by heat and flui during and after eruption. Certain indicator minerals typically occur within diamantiferous timberlines and are used as mineralogical tracers by job seekers who follow the indicator trail back to the volcanic pipe which may contain black diamond rings. These minerals are abundant chromium (Cr) or titanium (Ti) elements, which give the light color of minerals. The most common indicator minerals are chromium grenades, eulogistic garnets, orange titanium, red high-chromium spinels, dark chromite, bright green chromium, bottle green olivine, black picroilmenite and magnetite. Timberline deposits are known as blue background into the deeper serpentinized part of the deposits, or yellow ground for the near surface spectate clay and carbonate weathered and oxidized of. Black diamond ring are transported to the surface by magma in a volcanic pipe, they may erode out and be distributed over a large area. Volcanic tubes containing black diamond engagement ring is known as the primary source of black diamond engagement rings. Secondary sources of black diamond engagement rings include all areas where they were a significant number of black diamond rings Eroded out of their timberline or lamproite matrix, and accumulated because of water or wind action. These include alluvial deposits and deposits along existing and ancient coast, where loose black diamond ring to accumulate because of their size and density. Black diamond ring have also rarely found in deposits left behind by glaciers (notably in Wisconsin and Indiana); in contrast to alluvial deposits, glacial deposits are minor and are therefore not viable commercial sources of black diamond ring. Features material black diamond ring is transparent crystal tetrahedral bonded carbon atoms in the covalent network grid (SP3), which crystallized in a network of black diamond engagement ring, which is a variation of face-centered cubic structure. Black diamond ring have been adapted for a number of purposes due to the exceptional physical properties of the material. The most famous is its extreme hardness and thermal conductivity, as well as wide band gap and high optical dispersion. Above in vacuum or oxygen-free atmosphere, black diamond ring converts to graphite. Naturally occurring black diamond ring have a density in the range 3.15 to 7003353000000000000 3.53 g / cm3, with a clean black diamond ring near 7003352000000000000 3.52 g / cm3. Chemical bonding with carbon atoms in the black diamond rings together are weaker than those of graphite. In black diamond engagement rings, a bond forms a rigid three-dimensional lattice, while the graphite, the atoms are tightly bonded to the sheets, which can easily slide over one another, which makes the entire structure of the weaker. In black diamond ring, each carbon atom is surrounded by its neighboring four carbon atoms, which form a shaped unit tetrahedral. Hardness black diamond ring is the hardest known natural material on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness, where hardness is defined as resistance to scratching and is graded between 1 (softest) and 10 (hardest). Black diamond ring has a hardness of 10 (hardest) on this scale and it is four times harder than corundum, 9 Mohs. Hardnes black diamond engagement ring has been known since antiquity, and is the source of its name. Black diamond ring hardness depend on its purity, crystalline perfection and orientation: hardness is higher for flawless, pure crystals oriented to the direction (the longest diagonal of the cubic black diamond ring mesh). Because it would be possible to scratch some black diamond ring with other materials, such as boron nitride, the hardest black diamond ring can only be scratched by other black diamond ring and noncrystalline black diamond ring aggregates. The hardness of black diamond engagement ring contributes to its suitability as gemstone. Since can be scratched only by other black diamond rings, it maintains its polish extremely well. Unlike many other gems, it is very suitable for daily wear because of its resistance to scratching, may have contributed to its popularity as the preferred pearl engagement or wedding rings, which are often worn every day. The hardest natural black diamond engagement rings mostly originate from Copeton and Bingara is located in an area of New England in New South Wales, Australia. These black diamond rings are generally small, perfect for semi perfect octahedra, and are used to polish other black diamond ring. Their hardness is associated with the shape of the crystal growth, which is a one-step growth of the crystals. Most other black diamond engagement rings show more evidence of the different growth stages, which produce inclusions, flaws and defects in the planes of the crystal lattice, all of which affect their hardness. It is possible to treat regular black diamond ring under the combination of high pressure and high temperature to produce black diamond rings that are harder than the black diamond ring used in hardness gauges. Somewhat related to the hardness of the second mechanical strength property of which is the ability of a material that does not easily tear from the strong influence. The toughness of natural black diamond engagement ring is measured as 7.5 to 10 MPa m1 / 2 This value is good compared to other gemstones, but poor compared to most engineering materials. As with any material, the macroscopic geometry black diamond ring contribute to its resistance to tearing. Black diamond engagement ring has a cleavage plane and is therefore more fragile in some orientations than others. Black diamond ring cutters use this attribute cleave some stones, prior to faceting. “Izod” is one of the main indices for measuring quality synthetic industrial black diamond ring. Presure resistance It is used in so-called black diamond ring anvil experiments to create a high-pressure environments, black diamond rings are capable of crushing pressures in excess of 600 gigapascals. ConductivityOther specialized applications also exist or are being developed, including use as semiconductors: some blue black diamond engagement rings are natural semiconductors, in contrast to most black diamond engagement rings, which are excellent electrical insulators. Conductivity and blue color originate from boron impurity. Bor replacing carbon atoms in a black diamond ring grid, donating a hole in the valence band. Substantial conductivity is commonly observed in nominally undoped black diamond rings grown by chemical vapor deposition. The conductivity is related to the type of associated hydrogen airbed on the surface, and that can be removed by annealing or other surface treatments. Nitrogen is by far the most common impurity found in gem black diamond engagement rings and is responsible for the yellow and brown black diamond ring. Boron is responsible for the blue color. Color in black diamond ring has two additional sources: irradiation, that causes the color in green black diamond ring; and plastic deformation of the black diamond engagement ring crystal lattice. Plastic deformation is the cause of color in some brown and perhaps pink and red black diamond ring. To rarity, yellow black diamond ring is followed by brown, colorless, then blue, green, black, pink, orange, purple and red. “Black”, or Carbonado, black diamond engagement rings are not truly black, but contains numerous dark inclusions that give the gems their dark appearance. Colored black diamond ring contain impurities or structural defects that cause the coloration, while pure or nearly pure black diamond engagement rings are transparent and colorless. Most black diamond engagement ring impurities replace a carbon atom in the crystal lattice, known as the crack carbon. The most common impurities, nitrogen, and a slight yellowing of the intense, depending on the type and concentration of nitrogen. Gemological Institute of America classifies low saturation yellow and brown black diamond engagement rings black diamond ring in the normal color range, and use the grading scale from “D” (colorless) to “Z” (light yellow). Black diamond engagement rings different colors such as blue, are called fancy colored black diamond rings, and fall under a different grading scale. In 2008, the Wittelsbach black diamond ring, 35.56-carat Blue black diamond ring once belonging to the King of Spain, fetched over US 24,000.000 auction at Christie. In May 2009, 7.03-carat (1.406 g) Blue black diamond ring fetched the highest price per carat ever paid for a black diamond ring when it was sold at auction for 10.5 million Swiss francs. This record was beaten the same year: 5-carat (1.0 g) vivid pink black diamond engagement ring was sold for 10.8 million in Hong Kong on 1 December 2009. Identification black diamond engagement rings can be identified by their high thermal conductivity. Their high refractive index is also indicative, but other materials have similar refractivity. Black diamond rings cut glass, but this does not positively identify a black diamond ring because other materials, such as quartz, also lie above glass on the Mohs scale and can also be reduced. Black diamond engagement rings can scratch other black diamond engagement rings, but this can cause damage to one or both stones. Hardness tests are infrequently used in practical gemology because of their potentially destructive nature. Extreme hardness and high value of black diamond ring means that gems are typically polished slowly using painstaking traditional techniques and greater attention to detail than is the case with most other gemstones; these tend to result in extremely flat, highly polished aspects with extremely sharp facet edges. Black diamond rings have extremely high refractive index and fairly high dispersion. Together, these factors affect the overall appearance of a polished black diamond engagement ring and most diamantaires still rely on the skilled use of a magnifying glass (magnifying glas) to identify black diamond ring 'by eye'. Industry The black diamond engagement ring industry can be separated into two different categories: one dealing with gem grade black diamond rings and another for industrial-grade black diamond engagement rings. In both markets, the value of black diamond ring otherwise. Gem-grade black diamond ring Large grocery gem grade black diamond ring there. Unlike other products, such as the most precious metal, it is a significant mark in the retail sale of gem black diamond engagement rings. This is due to the successful creation of an anti-competitive cartel by the De Beers corporation, which lasted until they are able to control the new mine discoveries of 1980. However, the black diamond ring market still oligopoly. There is an established market for resale of polished black diamond rings (eg pawnbroking, auctions, second-hand jewelry stores, diamantaires, exchanges, etc.). One feature of the trade in gem-quality black diamond rings is its remarkable concentration: wholesale trade and black diamond engagement ring cutting is limited to only a few locations; In 2003, the reduction was 92% of the world's black diamond engagement rings and polished in Surat, India. Second important centers for black diamond ring cutting and trading are Antwerp black diamond rings district in Belgium, where the International Gemological Institute, based in London, black diamond engagement ring District in New York Tel Aviv and Amsterdam. One company - De Beers - control a significant share of the black diamond rings trade. They are based in Johannesburg, South Africa and London, England. One factor is the geological nature of black diamond ring deposits: several large primary kimberlite-pipe mines each account for significant parts of the market share (such as the Waning mine in Botswana, which is a single large pit operated by De Beers that can produce between 12.5 million carats (2,500 kg) to 15 million carats (3,000 kg) of black diamond ring per year), whereas secondary alluvial black diamond ring deposits tend fragmented between different entities because it can be scattered across hundred of square kilometers (eg alluvial deposits in Brazil). Production and distribution of black diamond engagement rings is largely consolidated in a few key players, and concentrated in traditional black diamond ring trading centers, where most of Antwerp, where 80% of all rough black diamond rings, 50% of all cut black diamond ring and more than 50% of all rough, cut and industrial black diamond engagement rings combined are handled. This makes Antwerp the de facto 'world black diamond ring capital'. Another important black diamond ring center is New York City, where they sold almost 80% of the world's black diamond ring, including the sale at auction. De Beers owns or controls a significant portion of the world's rough black diamond ring production facilities (in mines) and distribution channels for gem-quality black diamond rings. Black diamond rings Trading Company (DTC) is a subsidiary of De Beers and markets rough black diamond ring from De Beers, which mines operate. De Beers and its subsidiaries owned mines, which produce about 40% of annual world black diamond ring production. For most of the 20th century, more than 80% of the world's rough black diamond engagement rings passed through De Beers, but from 20011 to 2009, this figure declined to around 45% and by 2013 the company's market share in terms of value being reduced further to around 38% and even less by volume. De Beers sold the majority of its black diamond ring stocks in late 1990 - early 2000s, with the remainder largely represents working stock (black diamond rings are sorted before sale). It has been well documented in the pres, but remains little known to the public. As part of reducing its influence, De Beers withdrew from buying black diamond ring on the open market in 1999 and expired at the end of 2008, the purchase of Russian black diamond engagement rings mined by the largest Russian black diamond ring company Alrosa. Since January 2011, De Beers says that only sell black diamond ring from the following four countries: Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Canada. Alrosa had to discontinue its sale in October 2008 due to the global energy crisis, but the company reported that it continued to sell rough black diamond engagement rings on the open market by October 2009. Poleg Alrosa, the other major black diamond ring mining companies including BHP Billion, which is the world's largest mining company; Rio Tinto Group, owner Argyle (100%), Diavik (60%), and MUROW (78%) of black diamond engagement ring mines; and Petra black diamond rings, the owner of several major black diamond engagement ring mines in Africa. Down the supply chain, members of the World Federation of black diamond ring Courses (WFDB) act as a medium for wholesale black diamond engagement ring exchange, trading both polished and rough black diamond rings. WFDB consists of independent black diamond rings exchanges in major cutting centers such as Tel Aviv, Antwerp, Johannesburg and other cities throughout the US, Europe and Asia. In 2000, WFDB and the International black diamond engagement ring Manufacturers Association established the World black diamond ring Council to prevent the trading of black diamond engagement rings used to fund war and inhumane acts. Additional activities include sponsoring the WFDB World black diamond engagement ring Congress every two years, as well as the establishment of the International black diamond rings Council (IDC) to oversee black diamond ring grading. Cutting and polishing of rough black diamond rings is a specialized expertise that is concentrated in a limited number of locations around the world. Traditional black diamond engagement ring cutting centers are Antwerp, Amsterdam, Johannesburg, New York and Tel Aviv. Recently, black diamond ring cutting centers have been established in China, India, Thailand, Namibia and Botswana. Cutting centers with lower labor costs, notably Surat in Gujarat, India, handle a larger number of smaller carat black diamond ring, while smaller quantities of larger or more valuable black diamond rings are more likely to be handled in Europe or North America. The recent expansion of this industry in India, employing cheap labor, has allowed smaller black diamond engagement rings to be prepared as gems in greater quantities than was previously economically feasible. Black diamond rings that have been prepared as gemstones are sold on black diamond ring exchanges called Exchange. There are 28 registered black diamond ring stock exchange in the world. Exchanges are finally well controlled step in the black diamond ring supply chain; wholesalers and even retailers are able to buy relatively small lots of black diamond ring on the stock exchanges in which they prepared for final sale to the consumer. Black diamond engagement rings can be sold already set in jewelry, or sold unset (“loose”). According to the Rio Tinto Group, in 2002 the black diamond ring produced and placed on the market, was estimated at US 9 billion as rough black diamond ring, US 14 billion, once cut and polished, US 28 billion in wholesale black diamond ring jewelry, and US 57000000000 in retail sales. Cutting Mined rough black diamond engagement rings are transformed into jewels through a multi-step process called “cutting”. The black diamond engagement rings are extremely hard but also brittle and can be divided by a single blow. Therefore, the black diamond engagement ring cutting traditionally regarded as a delicate process that requires skill, scientific knowledge, tools, and experience. Goal is to create a diversified gem, if they were special angles between aspects of optimizing black diamond ring shine to the dispersion of white light, whereas the number and area aspects of determination of the weight of the final product. Reducing the weight of the cut is important and can be the order of 50%. Considered several possible forms, but the final decision is often determined not only scientific, but also for practical reasons. For example, the black diamond ring may be intended for display or wear in the ring or necklace highlighted or surrounded by the other certain colors and shapes. The most time-consuming part of cutting the preliminary analysis of the rough stone. This should be considered a large number of issues bear a great responsibility, and it may take years for unique black diamond ring. Consider the following questions:The hardness of black diamond rings and its ability to cleave strongly depend on the crystal orientation. Therefore, the crystallographic structure of black diamond engagement ring is cut is analyzed by X-ray diffraction to select the optimum cutting direction. Most black diamond rings contain visible non- black diamond ring inclusions and crystal defects. The cutter must decide which defects are to be removed by cutting and can be stored. A black diamond ring can be divided into single, well-calculated blow hammer to a pointed tool that is fast, but risky. Alternatively, it can be cut with a saw black diamond engagement ring, which is more reliable, but the tedious process. After the initial cutting, the black diamond ring-shaped in a number of stages of the polishing. Unlike cutting, which is responsible, but fast operation, polishing removes material from the gradual erosion and is very default. Affiliates technique is well developed; It shall be considered as routine and can be performed by technicians. After polishing, the black diamond rings re-examine possible weakness, either remaining or the process generates. These deficiencies have been disguised by various techniques to improve the black diamond engagement ring as re polishing, filling cracks, or clever arrangement of stone in jewelry. The remaining non- black diamond ring inclusions are removed through laser drilling and filling produced. Marketing has a significant impact on the image of the black diamond ring as a valuable commodity.NW Ayer & Son, the advertising firm retained by De Beers in the middle of the 20th century, managed to revive the American black diamond ring market. And the company has created new markets in countries where there was no black diamond rings tradition existed before. Marketing NW Ayer included product placement, advertising focused on the product itself rather than black diamond ring brand De Beers and associations with celebrities and royalty. Without advertising the brand De Beers, De Beers black diamond engagement ring advertising products of its competitors as well. The market share of De Beers' temporary short for 2nd place in the global market under the Alrosa in the aftermath of the global economic crisis in 2008, to less than 29% in terms of carats mined, rather than sold. The campaign has lasted for decades, but it is actually suspended in early 2011. De Beers still advertises black diamond ring, but advertising is now mainly promotes its own brand, or licensed product line, but not quite “generic” black diamond rings products. The campaign was perhaps best captured by the slogan “a black diamond engagement ring is forever”. This slogan is now De Beers black diamond engagement ring Jewelers, jewelry company, which is 50% / 50% joint venture between mining companies and LVMH, the luxury goo conglomerate De Beers. Brown-colored black diamond engagement rings are an important part of the production of black diamond ring, and are used mainly for industrial purposes. They were seen as worthless jewelry. After the development of the Argyle black diamond rings mine in Australia in 1986, and marketing are brown black diamond rings become acceptable gems. The change was mainly due to the numbers: the Argyle mine, with its 35000000 carats (7,000 kg) of black diamond engagement rings annually makes about one third of global production of natural black diamond engagement ring; 80% of Argyle black diamond ring are brown. Industrial-grade black diamond ring Industrial black diamond ring are especially important for their hardness and thermal conductivity which is much Gemological characteristics of black diamond rings, such as the 4 C, important for most applications. 80% of mined black diamond ring (equal to about 135 million carats (27,000 kg) per year), unsuitable for use as gemstones and industrial use. Moreover, that mined black diamond engagement rings, synthetic black diamond rings found industrial applications almost immediately after its invention in 1950; further 570000000 carats (114,000 kg) of synthetic black diamond ring is produced annually for industrial use (in 2004, in 2014 the 4.5 billion carats (900,000 kg), 90% of them produced in China). Approximately 90% of black diamond engagement ring grinding grit is currently of synthetic origin. The boundary between gem-quality black diamond rings and industrial black diamond ring is poorly defined and partly depend on market conditions (for example, if the demand for polished black diamond ring is high, some low-grade stones will be polished in low quality or small stones instead of sold industrial use). In the category of industrial black diamond ring, the sub-categories that contain the lowest quality, mostly opaque stones, known as Bort. Industrial use of black diamond rings in the past related to their hardness, which makes an ideal material for a black diamond engagement ring cutting and grinding tools. As the hardest known naturally occurring material, black diamond ring can be used to polish, cut, or wear away any material, including other black diamond rings. Common industrial applications of this property include black diamond ring drill bits and saw blades, and the use of black diamond ring powder as an abrasive. Cheaper industrial-grade black diamond engagement rings, known as Bort, with more flaws and poorer color than gems that are used for such purposes. Black diamond ring is not suitable for processing non-ferrous alloys at high speed, such as carbon soluble in iron at high temperatures by high processing speed generated, which greatly increases the wear of black diamond ring tools compared to alternatives. Specialized applications include use in laboratories as containment for high pressure experiments, high-performance bearings, and limited use in specialized windows. In the constant progress in the production of synthetic black diamond ring, future applications are becoming feasible. The high thermal conductivity of black diamond ring is suitable as a heat sink for integrated circuits in electronics. MiningApproximately 130000000 carats (26,000 kg) of black diamond ring are mined annually, with a total value of nearly US 9 billion, and about 100,000 kg are synthesized annually. Approximately 49% of black diamond engagement rings originate from central and southern Africa, although significant sources of the mineral discovered in Canada, India, Russia, Brazil and Australia. They are mined from timberline and lamproite volcanic pipes, which can bring black diamond ring crystals, originating from deep within the Earth where high pressures and temperatures enable them to form on the surface. Mining and distribution of natural black diamond ring are the subject of frequent controversy such as concerns over the sale of blood black diamond engagement rings or conflict black diamond rings African paramilitary groups. Supply black diamond rings chain controlled by a limited number of powerful business, and is also highly concentrated in a small number of locations around the world. Only a very small fraction of the black diamond engagement ring ore consists of actual black diamond rings. Ore is crushed, in which it is necessary to care in order not to destroy larger black diamond rings, and then sorted by density. Today, the black diamond rings are situated in the density of the black diamond ring rich fraction by means of X-ray fluorescence, after which the final sorting steps carried out by hand. Before the use of X-rays became commonplace, the separation is done with grease belts; black diamond engagement rings have a stronger tendency to stick to grease than the other minerals in the ore. In the past, the black diamond engagement rings are found only in alluvial deposits in GUNTUR and Krishna district of Krishna River Delta in southern India. India is the world in black diamond ring production from the time of their discovery in approximately the 9th century BC to the mid-18th century, but the commercial potential of these sources has been exhausted by the late 18th century and at that time India was eclipsed by Brazil where they were They found the first non-Indian black diamond ring in 1725. It is currently one of the most prominent Indian mines is located at Panna. Black diamond ring extraction from primary deposits (timberlines and lamproites) started in 1870 after the discovery of the black diamond engagement ring Fiel in South Africa. Production has increased over time and now a total of 4500000000 carats (900,000 kg), has been mined since that date. Twenty per cent of this amount has been mined in the past five years, and in the last 10 years, nine new mines have started production; four are waiting to be opened soon. Most of these mines are located in Canada, Zimbabwe, Angola, and one in Russia. In the US, black diamond engagement rings have been found in Arkansas, Colorado, Wyoming and Montana. In 2004, the discovery of a microscopic black diamond engagement ring in the US led to a bulk-sampling of timberline pipes in a remote part of Montana in January 2008. Today, most commercially viable black diamond ring deposits are in Russia, Botswana, Australia (Northern and Western Australia) and the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 2005, Rusia produced almost one-fifth of world black diamond rings production, reports the British Geological Survey. Australia boasts the richest diamantiferous pipe, with production from the Argyle black diamond ring mine reaching peak levels of 42 metric tons per year to 1990. There are also commercial deposits actively mined in the Northwest Territories of Canada and Brazil. Black diamond engagement ring seekers continue to search the globe for black diamond engagement ring-bearing timberline and lamproite pipes. Political AffairsIn some more politically unstable central African and West African countries, revolutionary groups have taken control of black diamond engagement ring mines, using proceed from black diamond ringd sales to finance their operations. Black diamond rings sold through this process are known as black diamond rings or blood black diamond rings. The main black diamond ring trading corporations continue to fund and fuel these conflicts by doing business with armed groups. In response to public concerns that their black diamond ring purchases were contributing to war and human rights abuses in central and western Africa, the United Nations, the black diamond ring industry and black diamond engagement ring-trading nations introduced the Kimberley Process in 2002. The purpose of the Kimberley Process to ensure that, that conflict black diamond rings do not become intermixed with the black diamond rings by such rebel groups not controlled. This is done by countries that produce black diamond engagement rings must provide proof that the money that will be through the sale of black diamond rings is not used to fund criminal or revolutionary activities. Although the Kimberley Process moderately successful in limiting the number of conflict black diamond rings entering the market, some still find their way in. According to the International Federation of black diamond rings manufacturers, conflict black diamond rings account for 2-3% of all black diamond rings traded. Two big flaws still hinder the effectiveness of the Kimberley Process: (1) the relative ease of smuggling black diamond engagement rings by African borders, and (2) the violent nature of black diamond ring mining in nations that are not in a technical state of war and whose black diamond ring are therefore considered “clean.” The Canadian government has set up a body known as Canadian black diamond ring Code of Conduct to help authenticate Canadian black diamond ring. This is a rigorous tracking system of black diamond engagement rings and helps protect “conflict free” labels Canadian black diamond rings. Synthetics, solutions and improvements SyntheticsSynthetic black diamond ring are black diamond rings produced in the laboratory, in contrast to black diamond rings mined from the earth. Gemological and industrial uses of black diamond ring have created a large demand for rough stones. This requirement was largely satisfied with synthetic black diamond ring, which have been produced by various method, for over half a century. However, in recent years it has become possible to produce gem-quality synthetic black diamond engagement rings in significant size. It is possible to make the colorless synthetic gemstones, that at the molecular level, which are identical to the natural stones and so visually similar that only gemologist with special equipment to tell the difference. Most commercially available synthetic black diamond rings are yellow and made with so-called high-presure high-temperature process. The yellow color is due to nitrogen impurities. Other colors can be reproduced as blue, green or pink, which are due to the addition of boron or radiation after synthesis. Another popular method for growing synthetic black diamond ring is chemical vapor deposition. Growth occurs under low pressure (below atmospheric pressure). This involves the feeding of the gas mixture (usually 1 to 99, the methane in hydrogen) in the chamber and the distribution of them chemically active radicals in a plasma ignited by microwave, hot filament, a discharge arc of a welding torch or laser. This method is mainly used for coatings, but can also produce single crystals a few millimeters in size (see figure). Since 2010, almost all the 5,000 million carats (1,000 tons) of synthetic black diamond engagement rings produced annually for industrial use. Around 50% of the 133 million carats of natural black diamond rings mined annually end up in industrial use. The cost of mining natural colorless black diamond ring runs about 40 to 60 per carat, and the costs of producing synthetic gem quality colorless black diamond ring is about 2,500 per carat. But the buyer is more likely to encounter a synthetic when looking for fancy colored black diamond engagement ring because nearly all synthetic black diamond ring are fancy colors, while only 0.01% of natural black diamond engagement rings. SimulantsA black diamond engagement ring stimulant is a non- black diamond rings material that is used to simulate the appearance of a black diamond ring, and can be called Diamante. Cubic zirconia is the most common. Gemstone Moisanite can be seen as a black diamond ring stimulant, although it is more expensive to produce than cubic zirconia. Both are produced synthetically. Improvements black diamond rings improvements are special treatments are carried out on natural or synthetic black diamond rings (typically those that are cut and polished in the GEM), which are intended to improve the characteristics of the Gemological stone into one or more newest. The include laser drilling for the removal of inclusions, the use of sealants to fill cracks, treatments to improve a white black diamond engagement ring color level, and treatment in order to fashionable color to a white black diamond engagement ring. Coatings are increasingly being used to make black diamond rings stimulant such as cubic zirconia a more “ black diamond ring-like” appearance. One such substance is black diamond ringlike carbon, amorphous carbon material that has some physical properties similar to those of black diamond ring. Advertising suggests that such a coating of some of these black diamond engagement ring-like properties is transferred to the coated stone, thus enhancing the black diamond engagement ring stimulant. Techniques such as Raman Spectroscopy should easily identify such treatment. IdentificationIdentification tests for early included black diamond rings scratching test relies on the superior hardness of black diamond engagement ring. This test is destructive, because black diamond engagement ring can scratch another black diamond ring, and is rarely used today. Instead, the identification of the black diamond ring relies on its superior thermal conductivity. Electronic thermal probes are widely used in gemological centers to separate black diamond ring from their imitations. Such probes consist of a pair of battery thermistor embedded in the tip of the fine copper. One thermistor acts as a heating apparatus, while the other measures the temperature of copper Tip: if the stone is being tested black diamond ring, will carry heat spikes is fast enough to produce a measurable drop in temperature. This test takes about 2-3 secon. As the heat probe can be separated from the majority of their black diamond ring stimulants, the distinction between different types of black diamond engagement ring, for example synthetic or natural, irradiated or non-irradiated, etc., requires more advanced optical techniques. These techniques are also used for some black diamond rings stimulants such as silicon carbide, passing the test of thermal conductivity. Optical techniques can distinguish between natural black diamond rings and synthetic black diamond rings. You can also identify the vast majority of treated natural black diamond rings. They are “perfect” crystals (at the atomic lattice level) have never been found to be both natural and synthetic black diamond engagement rings still have significant shortcomings arising from the circumstances of their crystal growth, allowing them to differentiate themselves from each other. Laboratories use techniques such as spectroscopy, microscopy and luminescence under shortwave ultraviolet light to determine the origin of a black diamond engagement ring. They also use specially designed instruments for their help in the identification process. CVD black diamond ring can usually be identified by an orange fluorescence.DJ colored black diamond engagement rings can be examined by the Swiss Gemological Institute of black diamond engagement ring spotter. Stones in the DZ color range can be examined through black diamond ring UV / visible spectrometer, a tool developed by De Beers. Similarly, natural black diamond engagement rings usually have minor imperfections and flaws, such as inclusions of foreign substances that are not seen in synthetic black diamond ring. Screening devices are based on the detection of the type of black diamond engagement ring can be used to distinguish between black diamond rings that are certainly and natural black diamond ring, which are potentially synthetic. These synthetic black diamond rings potentially require more investigation in a specialized business laboratories. Examples screening devices are D display and Alpha black diamond engagement ring Analyzer. In February 2013 armed robbers raided at Brussels airport and escaped with the jewels estimated to be worth 50m (32m, 37m euros). Gang broke through the fence and invaded the cargo hold of Swiss-bound plane. Gang have since been arrested and large amounts of cash and black diamond engagement rings recovered. Identification of the stolen black diamond engagement rings represents a set of difficult problems. Rough black diamond ring will have a distinctive shape, depending on whether the source of the alluvial mine or the environment, such as the beach or the river - alluvial black diamond rings have smooth surfaces, than those which were dug. Determining the origin of cut and polished stones is much more complex. The Kimberley Process has been developed to control the trade in rough black diamond ring and to prevent their being used to fund violence. Prior to export rough black diamond engagement rings are certified by the government of the country of origin. Some countries, such as Venezuela, which are not signatories to the agreement. The Kimberley Proces does not apply to local sales of rough black diamond engagement rings in the country. Black diamond ring can be etched by laser markings invisible to the naked eye. Lazare Kaplan, a US-based company, developed this method. However, everything is marked on the black diamond rings d can be easily removed.