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Sunless tanning, also known as a UV-free tanning, self-tanning (best self tanner), spray dressing (when used locally) or fake tanning and relates to the use of chemicals in the skin to produce the effect of a similar appearance to the sun. The popularity of sunless tanning has increased since 1960, when health authorities have confirmed the link between exposure to UV (from sunlight or tanning beds) and the incidence of skin cancer.Carotenoids Artificial tanning absorbs ultraviolet light and prevents the achievement of the skin. It was found that a sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 8 based on the spectrum of UVB decreased vitamin D synthetic capacity by 95 percent, while can be a sunscreen with SPF 15 to reduce the synthetic capacity 98 percent.Safe and effective method of sunless tanning is the consumption of certain carotenoids - found in some fruits and vegetables such as carrots and tomatoes antioxidants - which can cause changes in skin color if swallowed chronic and / or grants. Carotenoids are long-lasting. In addition, as carotenoids associated with a more attractive tan as a sunscreen. Carotenoids also fulfills the function of melanin to absorb the UV radiation and protects the skin. For example, they are concentrated in the macula of the eye to protect the retina from damage. They are used in both plants to protect chlorophyll from light damage and the harvest directly.Carotenaemia (xanthaemia) the presence in the blood of the yellow pigment carotene due to excessive consumption of carrots and other vegetables, which contain pigment resulting in increased serum karotenoidov.To may lead to the retrospective yellow-orange (xanthoderma or carotenoderma) and their subsequent deposition of the outer layer of the skin. Carotenemia and carotenoderma is in itself harmless, and does not require treatment. The basic carotenoderma when interrupted use of large amounts of carotene to the skin color returned to normal. This can take up to several months, however, for this to happen.Lycopene Lycopene is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of beta-carotene and xanthophylls.Lycopene may be the most powerful carotenoid quencher of singlet oxygen.Due to its strong color and non-toxicity, lycopene is a useful food coloring (registered as E160d) and is approved for use in the United States, Australia and New Zealand (registered as 160d) and the EU.Beta carotene Sunless tanning product tanning tablets containing beta-carotene.However, chronic, high doses of synthetic -carotene supplements associated with increased lung cancer in those who smoke. CanthaxanthinCanthaxanthin is most commonly used as a color additive in certain foods. Although the FDA approved the use of canthaxanthin in food, it does not approve its use as a tanning agent. When used as a color additive, required only a very small amount of canthaxanthin. As the tanning agent is used a much larger quantity.When the substance is ingested, it is deposited in the body, including the layer of fat under the skin, which becomes orange-brown barve.Te types of tanning pills are associated with different side effects, including hepatitis and canthaxanthin retinopathy, a condition in which a telephone deposits form in the eye retina. Other side effects, including damage to the digestive system and the skin surface were also noted. FDA withdrew permission for the use of canthaxanthin as a tanning agent, and has issued warnings about their use. Other Products Based DHA products DHA (dihydroxyacetone, also known as glycerone) is not a dye, stain or paint, but leads to a chemical reaction with amino acids in the dead layer in the surface of the skin. One of the paths is a free radical mediated Maillard reaction. The second path is the conventional Maillard reaction, a process well known to food chemists, which causes browning that occurs during the production and storage of food. This does not mean that the basis of the pigmentation of the skin, nor does it require exposure to ultraviolet light to initiate the color change. However, the use of 24 hours after the self-tanner, the skin is especially sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, according to a study in 2007 Katinka Jung in gematria Test Lab in Berlin leadership. Forty minutes after the researchers treated skin samples with high levels of DHA are found to be more than 180 percent of the additional free radicals generated during exposure to sunlight when compared with untreated skin.Another self-tanner ingredient erythrulose produces a similar response at high levels. The day after the self-tanner use, excessive sun exposure should be avoided and sunscreen should be worn outdoors, they say; antioxidant cream can also reduce free radicals proizvodnje.eprav some self-tanners contain sunscreen, its effect will not last long after use, and the fake tan alone does not protect the skin from UV exposure. A study by Jung et al. further confirms previous results demonstrating that dihydroxyacetone in combination with dimethyl isosorbide enhances process (based on the sun) tanning. This preliminary study showed that the dihydroxyacetone affect the amino acids and nucleic acids, which is bad for skin.Free radicals are due to the action of UV light on the age (Advanced Glycation end-products) as a result of the reaction of DHA with skin, and intermediates such as Amadori product (type of age) that lead to them. Ages in the background skin damage, which occurs with high blood sugar, diabetes, where there is a similar glycation. AGES absorb and provide little protection against certain harmful UV factors (SPF to 3), they do not have widespread electronic structure of melanin, that emits energy in such a way that the rest is in the direction, instead of starting a free radical chain reaction in which the other times, immediately participate. Total Tanner enhances free radical damage.Although some self-tanners contain sunscreen, its effects will not last as long as the tan. Those SPF only applies to a few hours after application. Despite the darkening of the skin, an individual is always sensitive to UV rays, so generally sunscreen is still very necessary. There may also be some inhibition of the production of vitamin D in the DHA-treated skin.The color effect is temporary and will disappear gradually over 3 to 10 days. Some of these products are also used erythrulose that does the same for DHA, but develops poasneje.Oba DHA and erythrulose been known to cause contact dermatitis.Professional applications spraytan are available from spas, salons and gymnasiums both handheld sprayers and in the form of sunless or UV-free spray booths. Closed cabin that resembles a closed shower, tanning solution sprayed over the entire body. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stated in the application of DHA-containing products, such as all-over spray or mist in the commercial spray "tanning" booth, it may be difficult to avoid exposure in the manner for which DHA is not approved, including eye area , the lips, or mucous membranes, or even internally. DHA is not FDA approved for inhalation.Many self-tanners use a chemical fragrances that can cause skin allergies can trigger asthma. Moreover, some of them containing parabens. Parabens are preservatives that can affect the hormonal system.Opinion of the Scientific Committee of the European Commission for Consumer Protection issued conclude spray tanning DHA with no risk has been strongly criticized by experts. This is because the cosmetics industry in Europe chose evidence to review, according to the Commission itself. Thus, almost every report by the Commission refers any opinions come from studies which have never been published or peer-reviewed, and in most cases were made by companies or industrial groups that are associated with the production of DHA. Industry missed almost all of the studies published in peer-reviewed scientific journals publicly available, which identified a potential DHA mutagene.tudija scientists from the Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, published in mutation research has concluded DHA "causes DNA damage, cell cycle block and apoptosis\' in cultured cells. Tyrosine-based products Tanning accelerators-lotions or pills that usually contain the amino acid tyrosine, an action that encourages and increases melanin production and thus speed up the tanning process. These are used in conjunction with exposure to UV. At the moment there is no scientific data available to support these claims.Melanotan hormone Afamelanotide, synthetic-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analog, which melanogenesis triggered by activation of melanocortin 1 receptor, is another alternative on the horizon.1991 Clinical trial of new drug test conducted at the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center with afamelanotide (then known by its amino acid formula [Nle4, D-Phe7] (NDP) -alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) to the 28 "cures white men "who were using" high-strength sunscreen during the trial "and concluded:" The human skin darkens in response to synthetic melanotropin given by subcutaneous injection. It seems tanning of the skin possible without potentially harmful exposure to ultraviolet radiation. "Afamelanotide in the form of a subcutaneous implant is currently undergoing clinical trials and the companies developed in Australia. Other melanogenesis stimulantsVitamin D metabolites, retinoids, melanocyte stimulating hormone, forskolin, isobutylmethylxanthine, Diacylglycerol analogues, and even cholera toxin, stimulate the formation of melanin. 9-cis-retinoic acid is a potential for the treatment of vitiligo.Forskolin is a natural compound that is found to create a natural tan by stimulating the production of melanin in mice. This stems from the roots of the Indian Coleus from foothils in the Himalayas. Temporary bronzersBronzers are temporary sunless tanning or bronzing option. These come from the powders, sprays, mousses, gels, lotions and moisturizers. When used to produce a tan, which can be easily removed with soap and water. Like make-up, these products tint or stain your skin person only, until washed off.Often used for "day" only tans, or to complement, based on DHA sunless tan. Many preparations are available, and some have limited sweat or light water resistance. If used in accordance with the clothing, or if the fabric and the skin edges meet, the majority will create some light but visibly chafing. Dark clothing prevents rub off from be noticeable. While these products are much safer than tanning beds, you can sometimes look orangey color and messy if used correctly.The recent trend is that lotions or moisturizers containing gradual tanning agent. The slight increase in color is usually noticeable after the first application, but the color will continue to darken more the product is used.Air brush tanning is spray tan to professionally carried out. Air brush tan can last five to ten days and will disappear when the skin oprati.To is used for special occasions or to get a quick dark complexion. On the home are also available airbrush tanning kits and aerosol spray. RisksSince coloration that form does not provide much protection against UV and the effects last only a few hours, tanners usually contain sunscreen. The ingredients are known to provide adequate protection for the titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, or avobenzone. However, when avobenzone is irradiated with UV light to create a triplet excited state in the form of keto, which can either cause avobenzone degrade or energy transfer with biological targets and lead to adverse effects.It has been shown to significantly degrade the light, resulting in less of protection over a long period of time. UV light day sunlight and temperate sufficient to break down most compounds. The data presented by the Food and Drug Administration by the Cosmetics Toiletry and Fragrance Association indicates a -36% change avobenzone is UV absorbance following one hour of exposure to sunlight.If applicable, contain avobenzone sunscreen on top of Tanner, photosensitizer magnifies the effect of free radicals that promote DHA because DHA can be skin particularly vulnerable to free radicals from sunlight, according to a study in 2007 led by Katinka Jung of gematria laboratory test in Berlin. Forty minutes after the researchers treated skin samples from 20% of DHA, we have found that more than 180 percent of the additional free radicals generated during exposure to sunlight when compared with untreated skin.September 2012 also saw an increase in the debate within the United Kingdom relating to DHA via inhalation spray strojenje.Medtem when the quantities inhaled must be significantly higher than the average consumer or even spray tan technician might be exposed to, press coverage of the issue resulted in increased Consumer diligence with regard to the level of DHA and other ingredients into their spray tanning products and a shift towards more natural-derived spray tan solution.The EU directive, by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Protection announced that, over time, limit the content of DHA spray tan products, 14% has been the practice in this debate. The risk of inhaling or ingesting DHA are unknown. People are advised to close their eyes or protect them with glasses and hold your breath or wear nose plugs, while spray tanning used.In a report released ABC News, FDA scientists found that DHA does not stop at the outer dead layers of skin. They wrote: "The fate of DHA, which remains in the skin, is an important issue, as it was found a high DHA levels of the skin." Were added, the tests were carried out showed that much DHA is used for the skin actually ended in the live layers of the skin. They concluded: "That leaves about 11 percent of the administered dose DHA absorbed in the rest [of life] epidermis and dermis." Each absorption in the living areas of the skin may represent a potential risk, even if none of this made it into circulation, he said Dr. Darrell Rigel, NYU professor of dermatology. The fact that some can potentially get into the bloodstream raised more red flags for him, it is said to be further investigated. Rigel is particularly concerned about the recurring users of the product and those in higher-risk groups, such as pregnant women and young children. "What he showed me certainly leads me to say I think about what I\'m doing and what I said because ... the real potential problem exists," he said."I feel that I have to give my patients the information you have given to me, because I think it is valid." Before he read all the newspapers, Rigel said it will "tell my patients what every other dermatologist tells them:" If you want to be tanned [tanning with DHA] is effective, it is not absorbed and no long-term problems. "After reading these documents, I\'m not sure that\'s true anymore."Toxicologist and lung specialist at the University of Pennsylvania\'s Perelman School of Medicine (Dr. Rey Panettiere) said: "The reason I\'m concerned is the deposition on the machine in the lungs could really facilitate or aid systemic absorption - that is already in circulation. These compounds in some cells could actually promote the development of cancer or malignant, and if so, then we must be wary of them. "The study of scientists from the Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, published in mutation research has concluded DHA" causes DNA damage, block cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis "in cultured cells.Many self-tanners use a chemical fragrances that can cause skin allergies can trigger asthma. Moreover, some of them containing parabens. Parabens are preservatives that can affect the hormonal system.Tanners can stain clothing. It is therefore important to look for quick drying formulas and wait for about 10 to 15 minutes for the product to dry before dressing. Best indoor tanning lotion speed up the process by stimulating the production of melanin. Increases blood flow to the skin, the proposed mechanism, which could in turn stimulate the production of melanin by melanocytes. Indoor lotions do not contain sunscreen and does not offer any protection against the sun. Unlike sunless tanning lotions, these are intended for use as a source of ultraviolet tanning bed or booth.Exposure oiled skin to ultraviolet radiation is not recommended, as this would increase the likelihood of skin damage. The FDA warns that using cosmetics that make the skin more sensitive to UV rays, tanning beds do more dangerous. In fact, the "Tanning accelerators" are not FDA approved. Ingredients Each of the active ingredientsingredients found in the common lotions include melanin, and L-tyrosine. Other commonly found ingredients include tea oil, copper (in the range of chemical compounds), green tea extract, and many other natural oils. Indoor lotions are usually intended for use only ingredients that do not cause damage or design acrylic surfaces. This is because all tanning beds use 100% acrylic in their protective shields. This is one of the reasons why people should not use the outdoor solarium tanning lotion as a few common ingredients, such as mineral oil (a common ingredient in cosmetics, including some baby oil brands) damage the surface acrylics.Tingle is a standard description for internal lotions that contain ingredients that increase blood circulation at the skin or cause a "pins and needles" feeling. BronzersSome tanning lotions have the effect of njih.Obstajajo three different types of bronzers; beauty, natural and DHA. DHA (dihydroxyacetone) is a higher level of bronzer, which remains on the skin for about 4-5 days, depending on how much you scrub. Natural bronzers that are made from plant extracts and remain on the skin for about 3-4 days. Cosmetic bronzers what stain the skin the most, to remain on the skin for about 1-3 days and can be easily washed off in the shower. These bronzers work with the skin to provide a cosmetic darker color. They take about 4-6 hours to develop full color. At the base tan before applying bronzer creates a more natural looking color. Natural bronzers use nanatural ingredientsingredients, such as caramel, riboflavin, etc. These ingredients provide instant start color slightly, but it will wash off in the shower.Higher quality natural bronzer lotions will have a certain organic ingredients / or natural exotic extracts that help in the process of tanning (melanin production / oxidation).Moisturizing One of the main purposes for indoor use lotions moisturize the skin. This is because a tanning (indoors or out), dry skin, so it is necessary to compensate for the extra moisturizing and leave the skin looking smooth and healthy.One of the most popular elements moisturizing lotion is hempseed oil, although other oils also common. Primary moisturisers lotions are essentially the same as in the regular hand lotions, although they tend to have less strength to them.Outdoor use Most indoor lotions do not provide sunscreen (SPF do not) and are not intended for outdoor use.