Shooping Cart

Select a desired item and drag it into the shooping cart at the right corner.Delete items by clicking on button delete all or decrease item state of quantity by clicking on item individually...

Delete All
Beautiful By Estee Lauder For Women. Eau De Parfum Spray 2.5 Ounces

Article - Beautiful By Estee Lauder For Women. Eau De Parfum Spray 2.5 Ounces

Great article from category of Ladies Perfume. Full name of this item is Beautiful By Estee Lauder For Women. Eau De Parfum Spray 2.5 Ounces and you get more than you give. Women love this article and its very cost effective. This item cost (52.99, 'USD').

  • This product is made of high quality material
  • It is recommended for romantic wear
  • This Product Is Manufactured In United Kingdom
  • Packaging for this product may vary from that shown in the image above
  • This item is not for sale in Catalina Island
  • This item is not for sale in Catalina Island

Brand that produces this item is Estee Lauder. Size of this ladies perfume is 2.5 OZ. . Ladies Perfume is made of chemical ingredients: Alcohol Danat Parfum/Fragrance Aqua/Water Cinnamyl Benzyl Alcohol Methylparaben. Product is characterized by: durability and long lasting. Use this special offer and buy this article. Click on button Click To Order and see current price....

Category - Ladies Perfumes

Click on link to jump on category and see other products from this category.See also other products from related categories of higher-order category of Perfumes :

Price - 43.49 $

Brand - Estee Lauder

Rating - 4.5

Article Beautiful By Estee Lauder For Women. Eau De Parfum Spray 2.5 Ounces has a rating of 4.5 based on 955 customer marks

Color & Size - Eau De Parfum Spray & 2.5 OZ

See more popular articles from category Perfumes

Perfume UK /pr.fjum/ US / cheap perfume/ or perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to the human body, animals, food, objects, and living spaces "a pleasant scent. Perfume shop varies from luxury perfumes to cheap perfumes. Perfumes have been known to exist in some of the earliest human civilizations, either through ancient texts or from archaeological excavations. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aromatic compounds such as vanillin or coumarin, which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics. History The word perfume comes from the Latin perfumare, which means "through smoke." Perfumery, or the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt and was further refined by the Romans and Persians.The world's first recorded chemist is considered to be a woman named Tapputi, a perfume maker who was mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamia. She distilled flowers, oil, and CALAMUS with other aromatics then filtered and put them back in the still several times. In India, perfume existed in the Indus civilization (3300 BC - 1300 BC). One of the first distillation Ittar was mentioned in the Hindu Ayurvedic text Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita.In 2004 - 2005, archaeologists uncovered what are believed to be the world's oldest perfumes in Pyrgos, Cyprus. The perfumes date back more than 4,000 years. They were discovered in an ancient perfumery, 4,000 square meters (43rd000 sq ft) factory housing at least 60 Stills, mixing bowls, funnels and perfume steklenice.V ancient times people used herbs and spices, like almond, coriander, myrtle, conifer resin, bergamot and as well as flowers.Arabian chemist, Al-Kindi (Alkindus) wrote a book on chemistry Perfume and distillation in the 9th century, which contained more than a hundred recipes for fragrant oils, salves, aromatic waters and substitutes or imitations of costly drugs. The book also described 107 methods and recipes for perfume-making and perfume making equipment, such as the alembic (which still bears its Arabic name. [From Greek , "cup", "cup"] by Synesius described in the 4th century ).Persian chemist Ibn Sina (known as Avicenna) introduced the process of extracting oils from flowers by distillation, the procedure most commonly used today. He first experimented with the rose. Until its discovery, liquid perfumes were mixtures of oil and crushed herbs or petals, which made a strong blend. Rose water was more delicate, and immediately became popular. Thus, raw ingredients and distillation technology significantly influenced western perfumery and scientific developments, particularly chemistry.The art of perfumery was known in western Europe since 1221, taking into account the recipes of monks "Santa Maria delle Vigne or Santa Maria Novella in Florence, Italy. In the east, the Hungarians produced in 1370 a perfume made of scented oils blended in an alcohol solution at the command of Queen Elizabeth of Hungary, best known as Hungary Water.The art of perfumery prospered in Renaissance Italy, and in the 16th century were Italian improvements in France with a personal perfumer Catherine de 'Medici, Rene the Florentine (Renato I Fiorentino). His laboratory was connected with her apartments by a secret passageway, so that no formulas could be stolen en route. Thanks to Rene, France quickly became one of the European centers of perfume and cosmetics production. Cultivation of flowers for their perfume essence, which had begun in the 14th century, grew into a major industry in the south of France.During the 16th and 17th century, perfumes were used primarily wealthy to mask body odors resulting from the rarely swim. Partly due to this patronage, it was founded perfume industry. In Germany, Italian barber Giovanni Paolo Feminis created a perfume water called Aqua Admirabilis, today best known as eau de cologne, while his nephew Johann Maria Farina (Giovanni Maria Farina) in 1732 took over the business.By the 18th century, aromatic plants were cultivated in the region of Grasse in France, in Sicily and in Calabria, Italy, to provide the growing perfume industry with raw materials. Even today, Italy and France remain the center of the European perfume design and trade.Concentration Types perfume reflect the concentration of aromatic compounds in a solvent in the fine fragrance is typically ethanol or a mixture of water and ethanol. Various sources differ considerably in the definitions of perfume types.The intensity and longevity of a perfume is based on the concentration, intensity and longevity of the aromatic compounds (natural essential oils / perfume oils) used: As the percentage of aromatic compounds increases, so does the intensity and longevity of the scent created. Specific terms are used to describe about the concentration of fragrance is the percent / volume of perfume oil, which are typically vague or imprecise. List of common terms (Perfume-Classification) is as follows:Perfume Extrait or in English perfume extract, or simply perfume: 15-40% (IFRA: typically 20%) aromatic compoundsEsprit de Parfum (ESDP): 15-30% aromatic compounds rarely used concentration of power between EDP and perfumeEau de Parfum (EDP), Parfum de Toilette (PDT). "Millesime" 10-20% (typically ~ 15%), aromatic compounds, sometimes referred to as "eau de parfum" or Parfum de Toilette is less common term, which is generally similar to the Eau de Parfum.Eau de Toilette (EDT): 5-15% (typically ~ 10%), aromatic compoundsEau de Cologne (EDC): Chypre citrus perfume type with 3-8% (typically ~ 5%) of aromatic compounds. "Original Eau de Cologne" is a registered trademark.Perfume fog: 3-8% aromatic compounds (typically the solvent is a non-alcohol)Splash (EDS), and after-shave: 1-3% aromatic compounds. "EDS" is a registered trademark."A classic cologne" describes men's & women's fragrance ", which are basically a mixture of citrus and no perfume parents".The classical colognes are different from modern colognes, which smell usually lighter, less concentrated perfume explanation. Men's colognes are different from women's colognes. Men's colognes have a similar concentration of Eau de toilette, eau de parfum, "and in some cases the perfume"; women's colognes on the other hand, are often the easiest concentration of the fragrance line of products for women. Solvent typePerfume oils are often diluted with a solvent, although this is not always the case, and its necessity is disputed. By far the most common solvent for perfume oil dilution is ethanol as brandy, cognac, Pisco, Rakia and correct strip or a mixture of ethanol and water. Perfume oil may be diluted with the help of the neutral scented oil as fractionated coconut oil, or liquid waxes, such as jojoba oil.Inaccurate terminology Although it is quite often the Eau de Parfum (EDP) is more concentrated than Eau de Toilette (EDT) and in turn Eau de Cologne (EDC), this is not always the case. Different perfumeries or perfume houses assign different amounts of oils to each of their perfumes. Therefore, although the oil concentration of a perfume in EDP dilution necessarily be higher than the same perfume EDT from the same area, the actual amounts may vary between perfume houses. EDT from one house may be stronger than the excessive deficit in the second.Men's fragrances are rarely sold as EDP or perfume extracts; also women fragrances are rarely sold in concentrations of EDC.Although it is a gender-naming trend is common for granting a concentration of fragrances that do not directly have anything to do with whether a fragrance designed for men or women. Furthermore, some fragrances with the same product name but having a different concentration name may not only differ in their dilutions, but actually use different perfume oil mixtures altogether. For example, to version EDT fragrance brighter and fresher than its EDP, EDT oil may be "tweaked" contains slightly more top notes or fewer base notes. Chanel No. 5 is a good example: its perfume concentration EDP and EDT are in fact different configurations (perfume dates to 1921 while EDP was not developed until 1980). In some cases, words like extreme, intense or concentre that might indicate aromatic concentration are actually completely different fragrances, related only because of a similar perfume accord. An example of this is Chanel's Pour Monsieur and Pour Monsieur Concentre.Eau de Cologne (EDC) since 1706 in Cologne, Germany, is originally a specific fragrance and trademark. However outside of Germany the term has become generic for Chypre citrus perfumes (without base-notes). EDS (1993) is a new perfume class and a registered trademark. Exercise fragrancesA common use of pure parfum (perfume Extrait) in Western cultures is a pulse points, such as behind the ears, on the nape of the neck and the inside of the wrists, elbows and knees, so that the pulse point warm perfume and fragrance is released continuously.Modern perfumes promotes practice layering fragrances, so that the release at different intensities, depending on the time of day. Lighthtly scented products, such as bath oil, shower gel and body lotion is recommended in the morning; eau de toilette is proposed for the afternoon; and perfumes used to pulse points for the evening. Cologne fragrance is rapidly released, it lasts approximately 2 hours. Eau de toilette lasts 2 to 4 hours, perfume, while it can take up to six hours.A number of factors can affect how a fragrance interacts with the user's own physiology and affect the perception of fragrance. Food is one of the factors, such as eating spicy and fatty foods can increase the intensity of the fragrance. Using drugs can also affect the character of the fragrance. The relative dryness of the skin of the user is important, because dry skin will not have the fragrance until the skin with more oil. Describing perfumeThe precise formulas of commercial perfumes are kept secret. Even if it were published, they would be dominated by such complex ingredients and fragrances, which should be very useful in providing guidance for the general consumer in description experience a touch. Nevertheless, connoisseurs of perfume have become very adept at identifying components and origins of scents in the same manner as wine experts.The most practical way to start describing a perfume is the fragrance features notes of the scent or "family" belongs, which all affect the overall impression of a perfume from first application to the last long-lasting scent of smell. Fragrance NotesPerfume is described in a musical metaphor as having three sets of notes that harmonious scent consent. The notes unfold over time, with the immediate impression of the top note leading to the deeper middle notes, and base notes gradually appearing as the final stage. These notes are created carefully with knowledge of the evaporation process of the perfume.Top notes: The scents that are perceived immediately use perfume. Top notes are composed of smaller, lighter molecules to evaporate quickly. They form an initial impression of the person perfume and thus are very important in selling the perfume. Also called notes of the head.Middle notes: The scent of perfume, which occurs just before the dissolution of the above note. Medium-size note compounds form the "heart" or main body perfume and act to mask the often unpleasant initial impression of the underlying notes, which become more pleasant with time. They are called also notes heart.Base notes: The scent of perfume that appears close to the departure of middle notes. Primary and middle notes together are the main theme of a perfume. Base notes bring depth and strength of the perfume. Compounds of this class of odor are usually rich and "long" and is usually not detected up to 30 minutes after application.Odors in the top and middle notes are influenced by the basic notes, as well as the scents of the base notes will change after a series of fragrances, which are used as middle notes. Manufacturers of perfumes usually publish perfume notes and typically they present it as fragrance pyramid, with the components listed in imaginative and abstract terms. Olfactive familiesGrouping perfumes, like any taxonomy, can never be completely objective or final process. Many fragrances contain aspects of different families. Even a perfume designated as "single flower", however subtle, will have a touch of other aromatics. You can "true" unitary scents rarely found in perfumes as it requires the perfume to exist only as a singular aromatic material.Classification by olfactive family is a starting point for a description of the perfume, but by itself can not show the specific feature of this perfume.Traditional The traditional classification which emerged around 1900 comprised the following categories:Single Floral: Fragrances that are dominated scent from one particular flower; French appoint soliflore. (For example, Serge Lutens' Sa majest La Rose, which is dominated by roses.)Floral Bouquet: Is a combination of more fragrances of flowers in perfume compounds. Examples include Quelques Fleurs by Houbigant and joy by Jean Patou.Amber or "oriental": large fragrance class featuring the sweet little animal scents of ambergris or labdanum, often combined with vanilla, tonka beans, flowers and woods. Can be enhanced by camphorous oils and incense resins, which bring to mind Victorian era imagery of the Middle East and the Far East. Traditional examples include Guerlain's Shalimar, Yves Saint Laurent Opium and Chanel Coco Mademoiselle.Woody: Fragrances that are dominated by woody scents, typically agarwood, sandalwood, cedar and vetiver.Patchouli, with its camphoraceous smell, which is often found in these parfumov.Tradicionalni example here would Myrurgia the Maderas de Oriente or Chanel Bois des les. A modern example would be Balenciaga Rumba.Skin: family of fragrances, which has scents of honey, tobacco, wood and wood tars in its middle or base notes and a scent that alludes to leather. Traditional examples include Robert Piguet's Bandit and Balmain's Jolie Madame.Chypre (IPA: [ip]): Meaning Cyprus in French, this includes fragrances built on a similar accord consisting of bergamot, oakmoss and labdanum. This family of fragrances is named after the eponymous perfume by Franois Coty in 1917, and one of the most famous surviving examples is Guerlain's Mitsouko.Fougere (IPA: [fu.]): Meaning Fern in French, built on a base of lavender, coumarin and oakmoss. Houbigant Fougere Royale is a pioneer in the use of databases. Many men's fragrances belong to this family of fragrances, which is characterized by its sharp herbaceous and woody scent. Some famous modern Fougres are Faberge Brut and Guy Laroche Drakkar Noir.Modern Since 1945, due to significant progress in the technology of perfume creation (ie, compound design and synthesis) as well as the natural development of styles and tastes, as there are new categories to describe modern scents:Bright Floral: combining the traditional Single Floral & Floral Bouquet categories. A good example would be Este Lauder's Beautiful.Green: lighter and more modern interpretation of the Chypre type, with pronounced cut grass, crushed green leaf and cucumber-like vonjev.Primeri include Estee Lauder's Aliaga, Sisley's Eau de Campagne and Calvin Klein's Eternity.Aquatic, Oceanic, or Ozonic: the newest category in perfume history, first appearing in the 1988 Davidoff Cool Water (1988), Christian Dior Dune (1991), and many others. Clean scent that is reminiscent of the ocean, which leads to many of the modern androgynous perfumes. In general, it contains Calon, a synthetic scent discovered in 1966, or other newer synthetics. It is also used to accent floral, oriental and woody fragrance.Citrus: old fragrance family that until recently consisted mainly of "freshening" eau de colognes, due to the low strength of the citrus scents. Development of newer fragrance compounds has allowed for the creation of primarily citrus fragrances. A good example here would Faberge Brut.Fruity: featuring flavorings other than citrus fruit, such as peaches, cassis (black currant), mango, passion fruit, and others. A modern example here would GINESTE Botrytis.Gourmand (French: [um]): scents with "edible" or "dessert" Like qualities. These often contain notes like vanilla, tonka bean and coumarin, as well as synthetic components designed to resemble food flavors. Sweet example is Thierry Mugler Angel.Fragrance wheel Fragrance wheel is a relatively new method of classification, which is widely used in retail and in the fragrance industry.Method was founded in 1983 by Michael Edwards, a consultant in the perfume industry, which has developed its own classification system diave.Nova scheme was established in order to simplify fragrance classification and naming scheme as well as to show the relationship between each of the individual classes.The five standard families consist of Floral, Oriental, Woody, Fougere and fresh, with the first four families who are more "classical" and the last consisting of newer bright and clean smelling citrus and oceanic fragrances that have arrived due to improvements in fragrance technology. Each of the families, then divided into sub-groups and arranged around the wheel. In this classification system, it Chanel No.5, which are traditionally classified as "Floral Aldehyde" would be located under the Soft Floral subgroups, and "orange" smells placed in the Eastern group. As a class, Chypres is difficult to place because they located the parts and Oriental Woody families. For example, the Guerlain Mitsouko, which is classically defined as Chypre be under Mossy Woods, but Herms Rouge Chypre with more floral character to the Floral Oriental. Aromatics Resources Vegetable sourcesPlants have long been used in perfumery as a source of essential oils and aroma compounds. These aromatics are usually secondary metabolites by plants as protection against herbivores, infections, as well as to attract pollinators. Plants are by far the largest source of fragrant compounds used in perfumery.Sources of these compounds may be derived from different parts of plants. The plant can offer more than one source of flavor, such as aerial parts and seeds of coriander have extremely different odors from each drugega.Orange leaves, flowers and fruit zest are the respective sources of petitgrain, neroli, and orange oils.Bark: Commonly used barks includes cinnamon and cascarilla. Scented oil sassafras root bark is used directly or purified as the principal component, safrole, which is used in the synthesis of other aromatic compounds.Flowers and blossoms: Undoubtedly the biggest and the most common source of perfume aromatics. It includes several types of flowers roses and jasmine, as well as osmanthus, Plumeria, mimosa, tuberose, narcissus, scented geraniums, Cassie, ambrette as well as flowers and citrus ylang-ylang trees. Although not traditionally thought of as a flower, they are also often used the unopened flower buds of clove. Most orchids are not commercially used for the production of essential oils or clean, except in the case of vanilla, orchid, to be pollinated first and in the art of seed prior to use in perfumery.Fruits: Fresh fruits such as apples, strawberries, cherries, rarely yield the expected odors when extracted; where there are such Fragrance Notes on perfume, they are more likely to be synthetic origin. Exceptions include blackcurrant leaf, Litsea cubeba, vanilla and juniper berries. The most commonly used fruits get their aromatics from the shell; They include citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons and limes.Although grapefruit rind still used for aromatics, are more and more commercially used grapefruit aromatics artificially synthesized as natural flavoring contains sulfur and its degradation product is very uncomfortable and vonj.Listi point: Normally used for perfumery are lavender leaf, patchouli, sage, violets, rosemary, and citrus leaves. Sometimes leaves are valued for the "green" smell they bring to perfumes, examples are hay and tomato leaf.Resins: Valued since antiquity, resins have been widely used in incense and perfumery. Highly fragrant and antiseptic resins and perfumes-resin, containing by many cultures as medicines for a variety of ailments used. Commonly used resins in perfumery include labdanum, incense / Olibanum, myrrh, balsam of Peru, gum benzoin. Pine and fir resins are a particularly important source of terpenes used in the organic synthesis of many other synthetic or naturally occurring aromatic compounds. Something called amber and copal in perfumery today is the resinous secretion of fossil conifers.Roots, rhizomes and bulbs: Commonly used terrestrial portions in perfumery include iris rhizomes, vetiver roots, various rhizomes of the ginger family.Seeds: Commonly used seeds include Tonka beans, seeds, carrots, coriander, caraway, cocoa, nutmeg, mace, cardamom and anise.Woods: Highly important in providing base notes of a perfume, wood oils and distillates are indispensable in perfumery.Commonly used woods include sandalwood, rosewood, agarwood, birch, cedar, juniper and pine. These are used in the form of macerations or dry distilled (purified) form.Rom terpenes. Orchid scents Animal ResourcesAmbra: lumps of oxidized fatty compounds, whose precursors were secreted and expelled by the sperm whale. Ambergris should not be confused with yellow amber, which is used in nakit.Ker harvest Ambra does not include damage to its source in animals, it is still one of the few animal scenting agents, some of which now there is little controversy.Castoreum: Obtained from the odorous bags in the North American beaver.Civet: Also called Civet Musk, this is obtained from odorous bags civets, animals in the family Viverridae related to the mongoose. The Council for the Protection of animals investigated African civets caught for this purpose.Hyraceum: Commonly known as "Africa Stone", the petrified excrement on the Rock Hyrax.Honeycomb: honeycomb from bees. Both the wax and honey may be solvent extracted to produce absolute. Beeswax is extracted with ethanol and the ethanol evaporated to yield beeswax absolute.Musk: Originally derived from the gland (follicle or below), which is located between the navel and genitals of male Himalayan Musk deer Moschus moschiferus is now largely replaced by the use of synthetic musk, sometimes known as "white musk". Other natural resourcesLichens: Commonly used lichens include oakmoss and Treemoss thalli."Seaweed": Distillates are sometimes used as essential oil in perfumes. For example, commonly used seaweed is Fucus vesiculosus, which is commonly referred to as bladder wrack. Natural seaweed fragrances are rarely used due to its higher cost and lower potency than synthetics. Synthetic sourcesMany modern perfumes contain synthesized odors. Synthetics can provide fragrances which are not found in nature. For example, Calon, a compound of synthetic origin, given a ozonous metalmetallic marine scent that is widely used in modern parfumov.Sintetine flavorings are often used as an alternate source of compounds that are not easily obtained from natural sources. For example, linalool and coumarin are natural compounds that can be synthesized from cheap terpenes. Orchid scents (typically salicylates) are usually not obtained directly from the factory itself, but synthetically created to match the fragrant compounds found in various orchids.One of the most commonly used class of synthetic flavorings far are the white musks. These materials are available in all forms of commercial perfumes as a neutral background to the middle notes. These musks are added in large quantities to laundry detergents in order to give washed clothes a lasting "clean" scent.Most of the world's synthetic aromatics are created by relatively few companies. These include:International Flavors And Fragrances (IFF)GIVAUDANFIRMENICHTakasagoSYMRISEEach of these companies patents several processes for the production of aromatic synthetics annually. Features Natural and synthetics are used for their different odor characteristics in perfumery Obtaining natural scentsBefore perfumes can be composed, have fragrances that are used in various perfume compositions first receive. Synthetic scents are produced through organic synthesis and purified. Fragrances from natural sources require the use of different methods to obtain the aromatics from the raw materials. The results of extraction or essential oils, pure, concrete, or butter, depending on the amount of waxes in the extracted izdelka.Vse these techniques will, to a certain extent, distort the odor of the aromatic compounds obtained from the raw materials. This is due to the use of heat, harsh solvents or by exposure to oxygen in the extraction process to be denatured aromatic compounds which either change their odor character or have become odorless.Maceration / Solvent extraction: the most commonly used and economically important technique for extracting aromatics in the modern perfume industry. The raw materials are immersed in a solvent which can dissolve the desired aromatic compounds. Maceration take anywhere from hours to months. Fragrant compounds for wood and fibrous plant materials are often obtained in this manner, such as all aromatic from animal sources. The technique can also be used for the production of scents that are too volatile for distillation or can be denatured by heat. Commonly used solvents for the maceration / solvent extraction include hexane, and dimethyl ether. The product of this process is called a "concrete."Supercritical fluid: a relatively new technique for obtaining aromatic compounds from the raw material, which often employs supercritical CO2. Due to the low heat of process and the relatively nonreactive solvent extraction, the fragrant compounds derived often very similar to the original fragrance raw materials.Ethanol extraction: type of solvent extraction used to extract fragrant compounds directly from dry raw materials, as well as the impure oily compounds materials resulting from solvent extraction or enfleurage. Ethanol extraction is not used for the production of fragrance from fresh plant materials since these contain large quantities of water that will be obtained in etanol.Destilacija: the usual practice for obtaining aromatic compounds from plants, such as orange blossoms and roses. The raw material is heated and the fragrant compoundsre-collected through condensation of the distilled vapor.The steam distillation: The steam from the boiling water is passed through the raw material, which is driven by its volatile fragrant compounds. The condensate from the distillation are settled in the Florentine flask. This allows for easy separation of the fragrant oils from the water. Information collected from the condensate water that retains some of the fragrant compounds and oils from the raw material is called Hydrosol and sometimes sold. It is most commonly used for fresh plant material, such as flowers, leaves, stems and.Dry / destructive distillation of raw materials are directly heated in an even without carrier solvent, such as water.Fragrant compounds which are released from the material with a high heat often undergo anhydrous pyrolysis, which leads to the formation of different fragrant compounds, and thus different fragrant notes. This method is used to obtain fragrant compounds from fossil amber and fragrant woods where intentional "burned" or "toasted" odor is desired.Fractionation: Using column fractionation, different fractions distilled from a material that selectively excluded to modify the scent of the final product. Although the product is more expensive, it is sometimes performed to remove unpleasant or undesirable scents of a material and gives the perfumer more control over their composition process.Expression: Raw material is squeezed or compressed and the oils zbirajo.Od all raw materials, only the fragrant oils from the peel of citrus fruits in the family obtained in this way, since the oil is present in large enough quantities to make this extraction method economically feasible.Enfleurage: Absorption of flavoring substances in a solid fat or wax and then extraction odorous oil with ethyl alcohol. Extraction by enfleurage was commonly used when distillation was not possible because some fragrant compounds denature with a high fever. This technique is not normally used in modern industry because of inadmissible costs and the existence of efficient and effective extraction methods.Fragrant extracts Although fragrant extracts are known to the general public as the generic term "essential oils", a more specific language used in the fragrance industry to describe the source, purity, and technique used to obtain a particular fragrant extract. Of these extracts, only pure essential oils and tinctures are directly used to formulate perfumes.Absolute: Fragrant materials that are purified from Pommade or concrete by soaking in ethanol. By slightly hydrophilic compound, such as ethanol, most fragrant compounds from the waxy starting materials extracted without dissolving any fragrantless waxy molecules. Pure usually found in the form of oily liquids.Concrete: Fragrant materials that have been produced from raw material to solvent extraction using volatile hydrocarbons. Concrete normally contain many wax for ease in which solvents dissolve various hydrophobic compounds. As such concretes generally further purified by distillation or ethanol based solvent ekstrakcijo.Betoni typically either waxy or resinous solids or thick oily liquid.Essential oil: Fragrant materials that have been obtained from the source material direct distillation or expression and obtained in the form of oily liquid. Oils obtained through expression are sometimes called expression oils.Pomade: fragrant mass of solid fat created from the enfleurage process, in which odorous compounds in raw materials adsorbed into animal fats.Pommades found in the form of oily and sticky solid.Tincture: Fragrant materials directly by dipping and pouring raw materials into ethanol. Tinctures are typically thin liquids.Products from different extraction methods are known under different names even though their starting materials are the same. For example, orange flowers of Citrus aurantium, which have been solvent extraction produces "orange blossom absolutely", but those that were steam distilled is known as "neroli oil". Composing perfumesPerfume compositions are an important part of many industries, the sectors of luxury goods, food service industry, manufacturers of various household chemicals. The purpose of the use of perfume or fragrance compositions in these industries is to affect customers through their sense of smell and entice them into purchasing the perfume or fragrance product. As such, it is of great interest for perfume formulation that people will find aesthetically pleasing. PerfumerThe task of compiling perfumes that will be sold is left to an expert on perfume composition or known in the fragrance industry as pomastar.Prav they are also sometimes referred to affectionately as a "Nez" (French for nose) due to their fine sense of smell and skill in smell composition.The composition of the perfume typically begins with a brief Perfumer employer in or outside the party. Customers in the perfumer or their employers, are typically fashion houses or large corporations of various industries. Perfumer will then go through the process of blending multiple fragrance mixtures and sell the formulation to the customer, often with modifications in the composition of the perfume.The composition of the perfume will then be either used to enhance another product as a functional fragrance (shampoos, make-up, detergents, car interiors, etc.), or marketed and sold directly to the public as a fine fragrance. Technology Although there is no single "correct" technique for the creation of a perfume, there are general guidelines as to how a perfume can be constructed from a concept. Although many ingredients do not contribute to the smell of perfume, many perfumes include colorants and anti-oxidants to improve the marketability and shelf life of the perfume, respectively. Basic frameworkPerfume oils usually contain tens to hundreds of ingredients and these are typically organized in a perfume for the specific role that will be played. These ingredients can be roughly divided into four groups:Primary scents (Heart): Can consist of one or a few main ingredients for a certain concept, such as "rose". Alternatively, more components are used together to create an "abstract" primary scent that does not bear a reminiscent of the natural sestavino.Na instance, jasmine and rose scents are commonly blends for abstract floral fragrances. Cola flavourant is a good example of an abstract primary scent.Modifiers: These ingredients alter the primary scent to give the perfume a certain desired character: for instance, fruit esters may be included in a floral primary to create a fruity floral; Calon and citrus scent can be added to create "fresh" flower. The cherry scent in cherry cola can be considered a modifier.Blenders: A large group of ingredients that smooth out the transitions of perfume between different "layers" or bases. They themselves can be used as the main component of the primary odor. Common blending ingredients include linalool and Hydroxycitronellal.Hardeners: Used to support the primary scent by reinforcement. Many resins, wood scents, and amber bases are used as fixatives.Top, middle and base notes of fragrance can be a separate primary scents and supporting ingredients. Fragrance perfume oil is then blended with ethyl alcohol and water, in the age in tanks for several weeks and filtered through processing equipment to, respectively, allow the perfume ingredients in the mixture to stabilize and remove sediment and particles before they can fill solution in perfume bottles.Condiments base Instead of building a perfume from "ground up", many modern perfumes and colognes are made using fragrance bases or simply bases. Each base is essentially modular perfume that is blended from essential oils and aromatic chemicals, and formulated with a simple concept such as "fresh cut grass" or "juicy sour apple" .Veliko Guerlain Aqua Allegorie accordance with their simple fragrance concepts, are good examples of what perfume fragrance bases are like.The effort used in developing bases by fragrance companies or individual perfumers may be the same as the marketed perfume, since they are useful in that they are reusable.On top of its re-benefit in using bases for construction are quite numerous:Ingredients with "difficult" or "overpowering" scents that are tailored to the combined database can be more easily integrated into the work of perfumeThe base may be better scent approximations of a certain thing than the extract of the thing itself. For example, to embody the base scent for "fresh dewy rose" might be better approximation for the scent concept rose after rain than plain rose oil. Flowers whose scents can not be extracted, such as gardenia or hyacinth, are composed as bases from data derived from headspace technology.Perfumer can quickly rough out a concept from a brief by combining multiple bases, then present it feedback. Smoothing out the "edges" of the perfume can be done after a positive response.Reverse engineering Creating perfumes through reverse engineering with analytical techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC / MS) can reveal the "general" formula for any particular perfume. The problem with the GC / MS analysis arises due to the complexity of a perfume's ingredients. This is particularly due to the presence of natural essential oils and other ingredients consisting of complex mixtures kemikalij.Vendar but "each armed with good GC / MS equipment and experienced in using this equipment can today, within days, find out a lot on the creation of any perfume ... customers and competitors can analyze most of the perfumes more or less precisely."Antique or badly preserved perfumes in the process of this analysis can also be difficult because of numerous degradation by-products and impurities that may result from the breakdown of the odorous compounds. Ingredients and compounds can usually be ruled out or identified using gas chromatograph (GC) smellers, which allow individual chemical components to be identified both through their physical properties and their scent. Reverse engineering of best-selling perfumes in the market is a very common practice in the fragrance industry due to the relative simplicity of operating GC equipment, the pressure to produce marketable fragrances and highly lucrative nature of the perfume market. Copyright It is questionable whether perfumes regarded as an appropriate copyright content in accordance with copyright law, US. The issue has not been addressed by any court of the United States. The smell of perfume, is not suitable for brand protection, because the smell serves as the functional purpose of the product.In 2006, the Dutch Supreme Court granted copyright protection to Lancme's perfume Tresor (Lancome v. Kecofa). The French Supreme Court has twice taken the view that the perfume is not creativity for the acquisition of printed words (Bsiri-Barbir v Haarman & Reimer, 2006 .. Beaute Prestige International v Senteur Mazal, 2008). Health and environmental issues Perfume ingredients, regardless of natural or synthetic origins, may all cause health or environmental problems when used or abused in large quantities.Although the areas are under active research, much remains to be learned about the effects of fragrance on human health and the environment. Health Immunological; asthma and allergies Evidence in peer-reviewed journals shows that some fragrances can cause asthmatic reactions in some individuals, particularly those with severe or atopic asthma. Many fragrance ingredients can also cause headaches, allergic skin reactions or nausea.In some cases it may be excessive use of perfumes cause allergic skin reactions. For example, acetophenone, ethyl acetate and acetone, while it is present in many perfumes, are also known or potential respiratory allergens. However, this can be misleading, since it is a pity that many of these chemicals (either natural or synthetic) presented depends on environmental conditions and their concentrations in a perfume. For instance, linalool, which is listed as an irritant, causes skin irritation when it degrades to peroxides, however the use of antioxidants in perfumes or reduction in concentrations can prevent this. As well, you can furanocoumarin present in natural extracts of grapefruit or celery can cause severe allergic reactions and increase sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation.Some research on natural aromatics have shown that many contain substances that cause skin irritation. However, some studies, such as IFRA's research claim that the opoponax too dangerous to be used in perfumery, still lack scientific consensus.It is also true that sometimes inhalation alone can cause skin irritation.The number of national and international surveys have found Balsam of Peru, which is widely used in perfumes, as in the "top five" most often caused by allergens patch test reactions in humans from dermatology clinics. A study in 20011 found that 3.8% of the total population of the patch tested allergic to it. Many perfumes contain components that are identical to Balsam of Peru.Prior to 1977 Base recommended marker for perfume allergy is Balsam of Peru, which is still advised. Balsam of Peru presence in cosmetic will be marked with the INCI term Myroxylon pereirae. Due to allergic reactions, since 1982, it was raw Balsam Peru banned the International Fragrance Association from the use of such fragrance compounds, but extracts and distillates are used to the maximum level of 0.4% in the products not covered by mandatory labeling.Carcinogenicity There is scientific evidence that nitro-musks such as musk xylene cause cancer in some specific animal tests. These reports have been evaluated by the EU Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS, formerly SCCNFP) and musk xylene was found to be safe for continued use in cosmetic products. This is in fact part of the procedures of cosmetic regulation in Europe that substances classified as carcinogens require such a security evaluation by the authorities, which are authorized in cosmetic consumer products.Although the other components, such as polycyclic synthetic musk, are reported to be positive in some in vitro hormone assays. These reports have been reviewed by various organi.Na example, one of the main polycyclic musk Galaxolide (HHCB) this includes those EU Scientific Committee for Consumer Protection Review of priority substances of the EU, EU Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks and, more recently, US EPA. The result of all these checks in the last decade or so, is that no safety concerns for human health. Estimates with a similar positive result, there is the other main polycyclic musk (AHTN), as well as, for example, its safe to us in cosmetics by the EU.Many natural aromatics, such as oakmoss clean, basil oil, rose oil and many others contain allergens or carcinogens, security, either gouverned with regulations (eg permitted levels of methyl eugenol in the EU Regulation on cosmetic products (enrollment 102, Annex III of the Cosmetics Regulation EU.) or with various restrictions by the International Fragrance Association.Toxicity Some of the chemicals found in the perfumes are often toxic, at least for small insects, if not for humans. For example, the compound of Tricyclodecenyl allyl ether commonly found in synthetic perfumes, and the insect repellent property. EnvironmentsPollution Synthetic musks are pleasant in smell and relatively inexpensive, as such they are often employed in large quantities to cover the unpleasant scent of laundry detergents and many personal cleaning products. Because of their use on a large scale, it has been several types of synthetic musks found in human fat and milk, as well as in the sediments and waters of the Great jezer.Ta pollutants may pose additional health and environmental problems when they enter human and animal diets. Types of threatsThe requirements for flavoring substances such as sandalwood, agarwood and musk has led to the endangerment of these species as well as illegal trafficking and harvesting. Safety RegulationPerfume Industry in the US by the FDA is not governed directly, instead the FDA controls the safety of perfumes through their ingredients and requires that they be tested to the extent that they are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Because of the need to protect trade secrets, companies rarely give the full listing of ingredients regardless of their effects on health. In Europe, as of 11 March 2005, it was carried out the compulsory declaration of a set of 26 recognized fragrance allergens. Requires a list of these materials depends on the intended use of the final product. The limits above which are necessary for allegens be declared are 0.0011% for products intended to remain on the skin, and 0.01% for those who expected to be washed.This has resulted in many old perfumes like chypres and Fougere classes that require the use of oakmoss extract, transform. Conservation perfumeFragrance compounds in perfumes will degrade or deleted if improperly stored in the presence of:HeatLighthtOxygenExtraneous organic materialsProper preservation of perfumes involves keeping them away from heat sources and store it where it will not be exposed to light. He opened bottle will keep its aroma intact for several years, as long as it is good shranjen.Vendar the presence of oxygen in the main room of the bottle and environmental factors in the long run alter the smell of fragrance.Perfumes are best preserved when kept in light-tight aluminum bottles or in their original packaging when not in use and refrigerated to relatively low temperatures: between 3-7 C (37-45 F). Although it is difficult to completely remove oxygen from the ends of the stored flask of fragrance, opting for spray dispensers instead of rollers and "open" bottles will minimize oxygen exposure. Sprays also have the advantage of isolating fragrance inside a bottle and preventing mixing with dust, skin and layers, which would build and alter the quality of the perfume.There are several archives and museums designed to preserve the historical perfumes, namely Osmothque that stores more than 3000 perfume of the past two millennia in their original formulation.All fragrances in her collection are preserved in non-actinic bottles flushed with argon stored in insulated compartments maintained at 12 C (53.6 F) in a large vault.